Before reading the text answer the following questions.

Краснощекова Г.А., Нечаева Т.А.,

Олехнович В.Т., Пахомкина М.Е.,

Черноморова О.Н.

MASTER YOUR SKILLS IN DISCUSSION

Учебно-методическое пособие

Для аспирантов


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Южный федеральный университет»

ИНЖЕНЕРНО-ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ

Кафедра иностранных языков

MASTER YOUR SKILLS IN DISCUSSIОN

Учебно-методическое пособие для аспирантов

По совершенствованию коммуникативной компетенции

Таганрог 2014


Составители: Краснощекова Г.А., Нечаева Т.А., Олехнович В.Т., Пахомкина М.Е., Черноморова О.Н. Учебно-методическое пособие Master your skills in discussionдля аспирантов по совершенствованию коммуникативной компетенции – Таганрог: Изд-во ЮФУ, 2014. – 200 с. Под общей редакцией Краснощековой Г.А. Целью учебно-методического пособия Master your skills in discussionявляется совершенствование коммуникативной компетенции по социокультурной тематике на английском языке. Пособие предназначено для аспирантов всех специальностей. Рецензенты: канд.пед. наук., доц. каф. иностранных языков ТиУЭ Авдеева Л.А. канд. соц. наук., доц. каф. иностранных языков ТТИ ЮФУ Сидельник Э.А.


Предисловие

Гуманистическая модель профессионального образования и воспитания направлена на максимальное развитие личности, мировоззренческого, научно-теоретического, технологического и культурно-аксиологического потенциала молодых специалистов и ученых. Большое значение придается поликультурному образованию. Чем больше опыт межкультурного общения, тем лучше студент осознает свое место, роль и ответственность в глобальных общечеловеческих процессах. Взаимно обогащающий диалог между студентом и коллективом способствует постоянному обновлению культурного самоопределения как группы, так и каждого его представителя с целью дальнейшего сосуществования в современном поликультурном мире.

Учебное пособие предназначено для работы в группах аспирантов и соискателей всех нелингвистических специальностей и соответствует требованиям программы по подготовке и сдаче кандидатского и вступительного экзамена в аспирантуру по английскому языку.

Целью пособия является совершенствование коммуникативных умений аспирантов и соискателей, которые уже имеют определенный уровень владения английским языком и нуждаются в поддержании и дальнейшем развитии этого уровня, в практике активного использования языка при устном и письменном общении.

Выбор социокультурной проблематики для обсуждения на иностранном языке в курсе аспирантуры проводился в соответствии с ее важностью как для общества, так и для молодого специалиста и его заинтересованностью в обмене мнениями по данным вопросам. В пособие вошли 6 тематических разделов (Units): Education, Ecology, Globalization, Science, Price of Progress, Applying for a Job.

Учебное пособие рассчитано на 2 семестра. Каждый раздел включает два оригинальных текста по теме раздела и текст для перевода с русского языка на английский. Содержание пособия позволяют развивать творческую активность аспирантов и соискателей. Дискуссионный характер упражнений направлен на совершенствование коммуникативной компетенции. В каждом разделе имеется серия упражнений, направленных на овладение словообразовательными элементами. Эти упражнения позволяют иметь целостное представление о многообразии оттенков значения лексической единицы, а также об особенностях ее употребления в контексте. Контроль понимания текстов достигается через вопросно-ответные упражнения. Каждый раздел заканчивается упражнением типа “Final Task”. Особое внимание уделяется необходимости аргументации собственного мнения.



В конце пособия есть приложение (“Supplementary Reading”) к каждому разделу, что позволяет расширить знания и лексику по изучаемой теме. Материал может быть предложен как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы аспирантов. Обучающимся предлагается словарь (“Word list”) для более комфортной работы с материалом. Приложение также содержит важный дополнительный материал (“Appendix”), который может быть полезен для подготовки к выступлению на конференции или защите диссертации на английском языке.

Данное учебное пособие может быть использовано как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы аспирантов и соискателей.

Contents

Unit 1Education……………………………………………………………........
Unit 2 Ecology…………………………………………………………………..
Unit 3 Globalization……………………………………………………………..
Unit 4 Science……………………………………………………………………
Unit 5 Price of Progress………………………………………………………….
Unit 6 Applying for a Job………………………………………………………..
Supplementary reading……………………………………………………….....
Unit 1………………………………………………………………………….....
Unit 2…………………………………………………………………………….
Unit 3…………………………………………………………………………….
Unit 4…………………………………………………………………………….
Unit 5…………………………………………………………………………….
Unit 6…………………………………………………………………………….
Word List………………………………………………………………………..
Appendix……………………………………………………………………….

UNIT 1. EDUCATION

Lead-in:

As reforms in Russia began to slow down new approaches to the development of our market became apparent. They consist in the transfer from direct investment to large-scale, mass programs of training personnel capable of doing business in Russia. The best investment that Russia can make today is in education. What can you say about it?

Pronunciation:

Task 1

Practice the reading of the following words.

acquire [əˈkwaɪər] appreciation [əˌpriːʃɪˈeɪʃən],
requirements [rɪˈkwaɪəmənts] throughout [θrʊ: ˈaʊt]
consideration [kənˌsideˈration] opportunity [ˌɒpəˈtjuːnɪtɪ]
bachelor [ˈbætʃələr], subsidize [ˈsʌbsɪdaɪz]
competitive [kəmˈpetɪtɪv] responsibility [rɪsˌpɒnsəˈbɪlɪtɪ]

Word study:

Task 2

It’s useful to learn different forms of words. Give the missing forms for the words from the texts which are in the table below.

Verb Noun Adjective
Develop
education
achieve
specialized
acquire
requirement
productive
appreciation
prepare
divided
consideration
decide
admission
survive
entrance

Pre-reading:

Task3

Before reading the text answer the following questions.

Does tuition on a fee-paying basis ensure a better quality of higher education?

Are parents ready to spend a considerable portion of their family budget to provide a good education to their children?

Will the new generation see a new education system?

Reading A

EDUCATION

Education is the process by which people acquire knowledge, skills, habits, values, or attitudes. The word education is also used to describe the results of the educational process. Ideally, education should help people develop an appreciation of their cultural heritage and live more satisfying lives. It should also enable people to become more productive members of society, both as citizens sharing in democratic processes and as workers in the economy. The most common way to get an education is to attend school. But much education takes place outside the classroom.

Education involves both learning and teaching. Sometimes, people learn by teaching themselves. But they also learn with the help of other people, such as parents or teachers. Parents are a child's first and perhaps most important teachers. They teach their children attitudes, habits, and values that help shape the children's character and remain with them throughout life. But few parents have either the time or the ability to teach their children everything the boys and girls need to know. Instead, parents turn over many educational responsibilities to professional educators.

Many other institutions and agencies also provide education. Churches, which are established mainly for worship, educate their members through church teachings. Libraries, newspapers and organizations also educate people. Radio and television are especially effective means of education. For example, various TV programs provided by public television stations give millions of people valuable learning experiences. Since the late 1970s, computers have become important in education. Widespread use of word processing and financial software has helped people to be more productive. Also, the ability to quickly search for information on the Internet, a worldwide network of connected computers, has begun to change the way formal education is provided.

A society that reaches a relatively complex level of development is called a civilization. For a society to achieve this level, its members must learn a great deal. They must become skilled in agriculture, commerce, government, industry, and the arts. Education is the chief means of acquiring and teaching the essential knowledge and skills. A modern society would not survive without education.

Education is more important today than ever before. It helps people acquire the skills they need for such everyday activities as reading a newspaper or managing their money. It also gives them the specialized training they may need to prepare for a job or career. Also, there is considerable evidence that people who achieve higher levels of education earn higher wages.

Education is important because it helps people increase their knowledge and understanding of the world. Education helps people acquire skills that make their lives more interesting and enjoyable. Such skills include those needed to participate in a sport, paint a picture, or play a musical instrument.

Education also helps people adjust to change. This benefit has become increasingly important because social changes today take place with increasing speed and affect the lives of more and more people.

Most countries consider education one of the most important areas of public life. Countries throughout the world invest large amounts of time, money, and other resources to provide education for their citizens.

Many colleges and most universities offer advanced courses leading to a master's or doctor's degree. Most universities also have professional schools, which provide training and award degrees in such fields as business, dentistry, education, engineering, law, and medicine. Students ordinarily must complete a certain amount of college work before gaining admission. Some professional schools are not connected with a university but award the same kinds of degrees as do professional schools of universities. This is the information about the system of higher education in different countries.

The system of higher education in the USA consists of four categories of institutions: universities, four-year colleges, technical training institutions and two-year community colleges.

Depending on the source of financing higher education institutions may be either public (state-supported) or private. The amount of money you have to pay depends on whether you go to a private college or a state university. At a private college the tuition is higher. Overall they are much the same as state universities. The subjects are divided into compulsory and optional. The subject the student specializes in is called a "major". Optional subjects are called "electives". Every student is assigned an "academic adviser" or a "faculty adviser" who will help the student decide on a plan of study based on his/her goals and the requirements for a degree.

Four years of undergraduate study at a university's "undergraduate schools" or colleges lead to a Bachelor of Arts (B. A.) or Bachelor of Science (B. S.) degree. "Graduate schools", which are part of a university or are separate institutions, offer advanced programs which lead to a master's (M. A. or M. S.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) or Doctor of Education (Ed. D.) degree.

Each college or university in the USA has its own requirements for admission. Most colleges and universities require applicants to take a standard entrance exam. The test takes a whole day. There are three parts: Math, English and Logic. Every student gets a book with questions. The book is divided into sections, with about 70 questions each. Each of the three subjects has a maximum of 800 points. The lowest score for getting into university is 550.The University Admission Office takes into consideration: the applicants' high school grades (transcripts),recommendations from high school teachers, applicants' scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, the impression they make during interviews at the university.

"Higher Education" in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, which currently consists of some 96 universities and 70 or so Colleges of Higher Education, means the stage of education which follows after one obtains qualifications equivalent to the Advanced Level of the General Certificate of Education. The higher education system consists of universities, colleges of higher education and a number of small specialized colleges in areas of study such as Fine Art, Music and Agriculture.

Students or undergraduates can complete their first (Bachelor's) Degree in a minimum of three years. Law degrees and some others require four years of study, while medicine takes longer. Students awarded their Bachelor's Degree are called graduates.

Universities and colleges of higher education offer a wide range of one-year, or sometimes two-year, taught graduate courses leading to a Master's Degree. Universities also offer research degrees (Doctor's Degrees), which have a very limited taught element, and are an opportunity to undertake research over a period of, generally, at least three years. The period for the award of a research degree is not laid out: it depends on the progress made. Students working for their Master's and Doctor's Degrees are called postgraduates. Most UK universities are keen to increase their numbers of postgraduate students. Many of the leading UK universities are looking forward to the development of Graduate Schools, Major research-based universities, such as Birmingham, Durham, Manchester, Sheffield and Warwick, have taken the initiative in setting up Graduate Schools, reflecting the very high level accorded to postgraduate activities in these institutions.UK universities offer full time programs and also part-time and distance learning programs. An academic year is divided into three terms of about 10 weeks each. In 1971 the Open University was established, where the formal qualifications (GCSE A-levels) are not necessary. Nearly a quarter of all adult part-time students participate in its degree courses on radio and television.

There are more than 300 universities and so-called "institutes" in Russia. To be admitted to an institution of higher education, one has to pass a series of oral and written tests. Grades in the certificate of secondary education are also taken in account. Entry to higher education is quite competitive. Some college departments (philologist, foreign languages-especially English, law, journalism) have dozens of applicants for one prospective student's position. The same is true to medical and theatre institutes. Higher education in Russia is partly free of charge or paid. In our country there is a three-stage higher education. The first stage is Bachelor of Science. The period of teaching is 4 years, after those two kinds of education go: Specialist and Master of Science. College students with good grades were rewarded with a modest stipend. All institutions of higher learning were subsidized by the government. Now the country is changing into a market economy, the system of education is also bound to undergo profound changes.

Word study:

Task 4


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